COVID-19 ModCollab

University of Toronto - University Health Network - Sunnybrook Hospital

We are a group of scientists and clinicians working on simulating healthcare resource utilization for COVID-19 and identify capacity constraints to support planning.

Because this is ongoing work, we will post findings here as soon as possible and update regularly (i.e., blog-style).

All working documents (reports, figures) can be found here: Downloads


Results are simulated using the CORE (COVID-19 Resource Estimator) Model 1.8

NOTE: This is a preliminary model based on evolving data. The model continues to undergo testing and further development. All findings should be interpreted with caution.

SEPT 04, 2020 - Predicting Hospital Resource Use in Ontario For a Potential Second Wave

Key Updates:

  • The CORE model has been updated to version 1.8 to reflect the patient pathways more accurately in Ontario’s acute care systems and to incorporate updated hospitalization, admissions, length of stay (LOS), and mortality data

  • After updating the model structure, we calibrated our model to daily ICU and ward occupancy data from Ontario administrative datasets (Daily Bed Census) between June 15 and August 18, 2020

  • We simulated four different scenarios using CORE 1.8 for a potential second wave: (1) Ontario (1st wave), Canada; (2) Michigan, USA; (3) Victoria state, Australia; (4) Italy

The full report "CORE1.8_Simulations" and results for all simulations can be downloaded here: Downloads

Summary of resources required at the peak of each of the four simulated second waves by the severity (low, average, high) of hospitalization resulting from infections. Resources are rounded to the nearest 5.

August 22, 2020 - Estimating healthcare resource needs for COVID-19 patients in Nigeria

Manuscript released in pre-print:

Key Messages: Current hospital resources are inadequate to manage the COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria. Given Nigeria’s limited resources, it is imperative to increase healthcare resources and maintain aggressive public health measures to reduce COVID-19 transmission

April 28, 2020 - Predicting Consequences of Curtailing Outpatient Scheduled Cardiac Procedures in the Face of COVID-19 Healthcare Resource Needs in Ontario

Key Messages:

  • There is a rapid growth in incremental cardiac waitlists as a result of the slowdown in activity in preparation for the resource needs for the COVID-19 pandemic. For certain procedure such as TAVI and EP procedures, there was already a large open waitlist prior to the COVID-19 pandemic and the reduction in cardiac procedures during the pandemic has further exacerbated this growing waitlist

  • When the first wave of the pandemic diminishes, we will need to determine the point at which foregoing procedures for cardiac patients, in order to make those resources available to treat COVID-19 patients, translates to a higher number of deaths among cardiac patients

Results and methods in the new report "Cardiac Resources_Apr 28" here: Downloads

Figure 6: Anticipated Wait-time Mortality

April 17, 2020 - Estimated demand for personal protective equipment (PPE) for Ontario long-term care homes during the COVID-19 pandemic

Key Message: Both incremental and routine PPE demand during the COVID-19 pandemic is substantial for Ontario long-term care homes, and current provincial stockpiles may be insufficient to meet demand over the next 30 days. This has the potential to impact the safety of point-of-care health care workers, the sustainability of the workforce, and overall health outcomes for long-term care residents during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Results and methods in the new report "PPE LTC Phase 1 report (April 16) FINAL_NoAppendix" here: Downloads

Table 2a: Total predicted PPE requirements (incremental and routine care requirements) for Ontario LTC homes during the COVID-19 pandemic (April 15-May 14, 2020

April 08, 2020 - Estimated demand for personal protective equipment (PPE) for Ontario acute care hospitals during the COVID-19 pandemic

Key Message: PPE demand is substantial and current stockpiles may be insufficient to meet demand over the next 30 days, potentially impacting the safety of healthcare workers, the sustainability of the workforce, and overall health outcomes for acute care patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Results and methods in the new report "PPE Predictions_Apr 8" here: Downloads

Table 2: Total PPE requirements for the Ontario acute care setting for suspected and confirmed COVID-19 patients (April 6-May 6, 2020)

April 05, 2020 - Updates

As April 3, 2020, some edits (fixed mis-labelled axis in some figures). Updated Figure 3.

The updated report "Hospital Resource Prediction_Apr 5 UPDATE" here: Downloads

Figure 3: Case Predictions Summary March 17 - April 13, 2020

April 03, 2020 - Updates

Key Message: There is continued uncertainty in the epidemiology of COVID-19 (i.e., predicting number of cases is challenging). However, in both, our "Expected" (ON Predicted) and "Italy" scenarios, we may need to further increase capacity compared to the number of resources currently available.

What has changed?

  • The epidemiological curves (case scenarios) have been updated with more observed data for Italy and South Korea, predictions for Ontario are based on reported data

  • Updated hospitalization data based on Canadian/ON experience

  • Added assumption that patients hospitalized in ward do not deteriorate and require ICU

Our new report "Hospital Resource Prediction_Apr 3" here: Downloads

March 26, 2020 - Interactive Model (ShinyApp) and Updates

An interactive model using ShinyApp (beta version) is now available on our website for anyone interested in trying new parameters to answer any questions. It can be accessed here: Interactive Model

This ShinyApp was developed in collaboration with David Rios, Anna Heath, and Petros Pechlivanoglou.

What has changed?

  • Minor bugs in the model were fixed, and all Figures have been updated in the report and are summarized below

Our updated report "Hospital Resource Prediction_Mar 26 UPDATE" and figures here: Downloads

Figure 1 - Italy Scenario (Patients Needing Admission)

Figure 2 - Italy (Days Until Resource Depletion)

Figure 3 - Italy (Patients Waiting for Resources)

Figure 4 - 25% Scenario (Patients Needing Admission)

Figure 5 - 25% (Days Until Resource Depletion)

Figure 6 - 25% (Patients Waiting for Resources)

Figure 7 - 15% Scenario (Patients Needing Admission)

Figure 8 - 15% (Days Until Resource Depletion)

Figure 9 - 15% (Patients Waiting for Resources)

March 21, 2020 - Brief Summary (Updates)

What has changed?

  • Italy scenario updated with recent case counts from Italy.

  • We have included two new scenarios with a linear increase in new daily cases for 14 days, then the curve flattening to approximate effective social distancing measures.

  • With these new scenarios, the limitations/assumptions:

      • Social distancing is effective (curve becomes similar to South Korea)

      • Social distancing takes 14 days to see impact

      • Day 1 in our simulations is around March 15, i.e., we are now at day 7

  • Methods are not included in new report, they are unchanged from March 18, 2020 report.

Updated report "Hospital Resource Prediction_Mar 21 UPDATE" here: Downloads

March 18, 2020 - Brief Summary


    • The analysis is for Ontario.

    • The base case analysis assumes we can free up 10% of existing hospital beds and 25% of ICU beds and ventilators for COVID-19 patients - different scenarios forthcoming

    • We run a “Conservative Scenario” with a 7.5% daily increase in new case numbers, and a worst-case “Italy Scenario”, i.e., case numbers in ON increase at the same rate as in Italy (this is almost a 33% daily increase in new case numbers, which roughly corresponds to the rate of growth currently seen in many European and North American countries)


    • “Conservative Scenario”: we run out of ICU beds and ventilators in ~ 37 days and ward beds in ~ 7 weeks

    • “Italy Scenario”: we run out of ICU beds and ventilators in ~ 16 days and ward beds in ~ 5 weeks

    • Scenario analyses that consider the effect of increased capacity for COVID-19 patients within existing resources and the addition of 2053 ICU beds and 600 ventilators demonstrate that the time to resource depletion is longer, but that there may still be a critical shortage of ventilators

    • More scenarios forthcoming.

Our new report "Hospital Resource Prediction_Mar 18" here: Downloads

Figure 1. Base-case (Conservative Scenario) of Resources Available over Time

Figure 2. Base-case (Conservative Scenario) of Number of Individuals Waiting for Resources over Time

Figure 3. Base-case (Italy Scenario) of Resources Available over Time

Figure 4. Base-case (Italy Scenario) of Number of Individuals Waiting for Resources over Time